Condition | Cosmos SDK (2023)

#Swimming pool

The pool is used to track the supply of pegged and unpegged tokens with a face value of bonds.

#Last total power

LastTotalPower tracks the total number of related tokens registered during the previous terminal block. Inventory records with "Last" in front must remain unchanged until the end of the last block.

  • Final total effect:0x12 -> ProtocolBuffer (math.Int)


Params is a module-wide configuration structure that stores system parameters and defines the overall operation of the deployment module.

Coffee // Params define staking parameters module.message Params { option (gogoproto.equal) = true; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; // unbonding_time is the duration of unbonding. google.protobuf.Duration unbonding_time = 1 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false, (gogoproto.stdduration) = true]; // max_validators is the maximum number of validators. uint32 max_validators = 2; // max_entries is the maximum number of entries for an unrelated delegation or re-delegation (per pair/trio). uint32 max_entries = 3; //historical_entries is the number of historical entries to persist. uint32 history_entries = 4; // bond_denom defines the value of the coin that can be redeemed. string bond_denom = 5; // min_commission_rate is the minimum commission rate for the entire chain that the validator can charge delegate string min_commission_rate = 6 [ (gogoproto.moretags) = "yaml:\"min_commission_rate\"", (gogoproto.customtype) = " / cosmos-sdk/types.Dec", (gogoproto.nullable) = false ];}


Validators can have one of three statuses

  • unbound: The validator is not in the active set. They cannot sign blocks and do not earn rewards. They can receive delegations.
  • Bonded: When the validator receives enough chained tokens, it automatically joins the active set belowLast blockand their status is updated toBonded.Write under blocks and get rewards. They may receive additional delegations. They can be punished for bad behavior. Delegators to this validator that unbond their delegation must wait for the duration of UnbondingTime, a string-specific parameter, during which time they can still be pruned for source validation violations if those violations were committed during the period the tokens were bound.
  • Solution: When a validator leaves an active group, either by election or by being cut, imprisoned or stoned, the release of all his delegations begins. All delegations must then wait UnbondingTime before their tokens are transferred to their z-accountsClosed pool.

Validator objects must primarily be stored and accessible toOperator's address, the SDK validator address for the validator operator. Two additional indexes are maintained for each validation object to meet the required slash lookups and validation set updates. Third special index (LastValidatorPower) is also retained, which, however, remains constant within each block, unlike the first two indices, which reflect the validator records within the block.

  • Validatory:0x21 | OperatorAddrLen (1 bajt) | OperatorAddr -> ProtocolBuffer (validator)
  • ValidatorsByConsAddr:0x22 | ConsAddrLen (1 bajt) | ConsAddr -> OperatorAddr
  • Validators by power:0x23 | BigEndian(moc konsensus) | OperatorAddress(1 byte) | OperatorAddr -> OperatorAddr
  • LoadValidatorsMoc:0x11 | OperatorAddrLen (1 bajt) | OperatorAddr -> ProtocolBuffer (ConsensusPower)

Validatoryis the primary index - ensures that each operator can only have one validator bound, and that validator's public key can be changed in the future. Delegators can refer to the immutable validator operator without worrying about the changing public key.

ValidatorByConsAddris an additional index that allows you to search for a slash. When Tendermint reports proofs, it gives the address of the validator, so this card is needed to find the operator. Notice itminus addresscorresponds to an address that can be derived by the validatorConsPubKey.

Validators by forceis an additional index that provides a sorted list of potential validators to quickly determine the current active set. HereConsensusPower is the default validator.Tokens/10^6. Note that all validatorsThe prisonis true, they are not stored in this index.

LoadValidatorsMocis a special index that contains a historical list of linked validators of the last block. This index remains constant during the block, but is updated during the validation set update process that takes place inLast block.

The status of each validator is stored in a fileWalidatorstructure:

Coffee // The validator defines the validator along with the total number // of the Validator's bond shares and their coin price. The cut results in // a drop in the exchange rate, allowing future //non-delegates to be calculated correctly without iterating over the delegates. When coins are delegated to// this validator, the validator is assigned a delegation whose number// of bond shares is based on the amount of transferred coins divided by the current // exchange rate. The voting power can be calculated as the total number of shares multiplied by the exchange rate message Validator { option (gogoproto.equal) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_getters) = false; // operator_address specifies the address of the validator operator; bech encoded in JSON. string operator_address = 1 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; // consensus_public_key is the validator's consensus public key, like Any's Protobuf. google.protobuf.Any consensus key_pub = 2 [(cosmos_proto.accepts_interface) = "cosmos.crypto.PubKey"]; // trapped indicates whether the validator has been trapped from the bound state or not. bool caught = 3; // status is the status of the validator (linked/unlinked/unlinked). Bond Status = 4; // tokens defines delegated tokens (including self-delegation). string tokens = 5 [ (cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.Int", (gogoproto.customtype) = "", (gogoproto.nullable) = false ]; // delegate_shares defines the total number of shares issued to validator delegates. string delegate_shares = 6 [ (cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.Dec", (gogoproto.customtype) = "", (gogoproto.nullable) = false ]; // description defines the description conditions for the validator. description description = 7 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false]; // unbonding_height indicates, in case of unbonding, the height at which this validator started unbonding. int64 unbonding_height = 8; // unbonding_time specifies, for unbonding, the minimum time the validator needs to complete unbonding. google.protobuf.Timestamp unbonding_time = 9 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false, (gogoproto.stdtime) = true]; // commission defines commission parameters. commission commission = 10 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false]; // min_self_delegation is the minimum self-delegation declared by the validator. // // Because: cosmos-sdk 0.46 string min_self_delegation = 11 [ (cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.Int", (gogoproto.customtype) = "", ( gogoproto.nullable) = false ];}

Coffee // CommissionRates determines the starting commission rates used to create // validator.message CommissionRates { option (gogoproto.equal) = true; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; // rate is the commission rate charged to delegates, expressed as a fraction. string rate = 1 [ (cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.Dec", (gogoproto.customtype) = "", (gogoproto.nullable) = false ]; // max_rate specifies the maximum commission rate the validator can ever charge as a fraction. string max_rate = 2 [ (cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.Dec", (gogoproto.customtype) = "", (gogoproto.nullable) = false ]; // max_change_rate specifies the maximum daily increase in the validator's commission as a fraction. string max_change_rate = 3 [ (cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.Dec", (gogoproto.customtype) = "", (gogoproto.nullable) = false ];}/ / Commission defines commission parameters for a given validator.message Commission { option (gogoproto.equal) = true; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; // Commission_rates specifies the initial commission rates to use to create the validator. commission_stake_commission = 1 [(gogoproto.embed) = true, (gogoproto.nullable) = false]; // update_time is the last commission rate change. google.protobuf.Timestamp update_time = 2 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false, (gogoproto.stdtime) = true];}// Description defines the validator description.message Description { option (gogoproto.equal) = true; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; // moniker defines the human readable name of the validator. string nickname = 1; // identity defines an optional identity signature (eg UPort or Keybase). string identity = 2; // site defines an optional site link. website with string = 3; // security_contact defines an optional email address for the security contact. string security_contact = 4; // details specifies other optional details. string details = 5;}


Delegations are identified by connectionDelegated address(address of the delegating person) with a noteaddress validatorDelegates are indexed in the store as follows:

  • Delegation:0x31 | DelegatorAddrLen (1 byte) | Delegerets adresse | ValidatorAddrLen (1 byte) | ValidatorAddr -> ProtocolBuffer (delegation)

Shareholders can submit coins to validators; in this situation their funds are withheldDelegationdata structure. It is owned by one delegate and is tied to the shares of one validator. The sender of the transaction is the bondholder.

Coffee // Delegation represents a bond with tokens on the account. It is owned by one delegate and is associated with the voting rights of one// validator.message Delegation { option (gogoproto.equal) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_getters) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; // delegate_address is the bech32 encoded address of the delegate. string delegate_address = 1 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; // validator_address is the bech32 encoded address of the validator. string validator_address = 2 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; // actions indicates the delegated actions received. string shares = 3 [ (cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.Dec", (gogoproto.customtype) = "", (gogoproto.nullable) = false ];}

When delegating tokens to the Validator, the number of delegated shares is issued based on the dynamic exchange rate, calculated as follows based on the total number of tokens transferred to the Validator and the number of shares issued so far:

Aktier pr. token = validator.TotalShares() / validator.Tokens()

Only the number of shares received is registered in the field DelegationEntry. Then, when the delegate does not delegate, the amount of token he receives is calculated based on the number of shares he currently holds and the reverse exchange rate:

Tokens pr. aktie = validator.Tokens() / validatorShares()

TheActionsthey are simply an accounting mechanism. They are not convertible assets. The reason for this mechanism is to simplify the accounting around the cut. Instead of iteratively shorting tokens for each delegate entry, you can instead short the total validator-related tokens, effectively reducing the value of each issued delegate share.

#Freeing Delegation

Shares inDelegationthey may be unrelated, but they must exist for some time as asanasFreeing Delegation, where shares can be reduced if byzantium behavior is detected.

Freeing Delegationis indexed in the store as:

  • Unrelated Delegation:0x32 | DelegatorAddrLen (1 bayt) | Adresse Delegatora | ValidatorAddrLen (1 bayt) | ValidatorAddr -> ProtocolBuffer (unbondingDelegation)
  • UnbondingDelegationsFromValidator:0x33 | ValidatorAddrLen (1 byte) | Verifikator adresse | DelegatorAddrLen (1 byte) | DelegateAddr -> nul

The first map here is used in queries to find all non-binding delegations for a given delegate, while the second map is used in slashes to find all non-binding delegations related to a given validator to be cut.

An UnbondingDelegation object is created each time a binding is initiated.

Coffee // UnbondingDelegation stores all unbondings of a single delegate // for a single validator in a timed list.message UnbondingDelegation { option (gogoproto.equal) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_getters) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; // delegate_address is the bech32 encoded address of the delegate. string delegate_address = 1 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; // validator_address is the bech32 encoded address of the validator. string validator_address = 2 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; // records are unrelated delegation records. repeated entries UnbondingDelegationEntry = 3 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false]; // freeing delegation records}


Bound chips worth oneDelegationcan be immediately transferred from the source validator to another validator (target validator). But when this happens, they need to be tracked downDelegationobject so that their shares can be truncated if their tokens contributed to a byzantine error by the source validator.

Delegationis indexed in the store as:

  • Redelegations:0x34 | DelegatorAddrLen (1 byte) | Delegerets adresse | ValidatorAddrLen (1 byte) | ValidatorSrcAddr | ValidatorDstAddr -> ProtocolBuffer (re-delegere)
  • RepostsBySrc:0x35 | ValidatorSrcAddrLen (1 byte) | ValidatorSrcAddr | ValidatorDstAddrLen (1 byte) | ValidatorDstAddr | DelegatorAddrLen (1 byte) | DelegatorAddr -> nul
  • Re-delegations of Dst:0x36 | ValidatorDstAddrLen (1 byte) | ValidatorDstAddr | ValidatorSrcAddrLen (1 byte) | ValidatorSrcAddr | DelegatorAddrLen (1 byte) | DelegatorAddr -> nul

The first card here is used for queries to find all re-delegations for a given delegate. The second card is for cutting on the bottomValidatorSrcAddrwhile the third card is for cutting outValidatorDstAddr.

A reinstallation object is created each time a redistribution takes place. To prevent "re-delegation jumping", re-delegation cannot occur when:

  • the (re)delegate already has another immature re-delegation in progress with the destination to the validator (let's call itWalidator X)
  • and the (re)delegate tries to create a filetheredelegation where the source validator for this new redelegation is locatedWalidator X.

Coffee // RedelegationEntry defines a redelegation object with the relevant metadata.message RedelegationEntry { option (gogoproto.equal) = true; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; // creative_height specifies the height where the nest delegation occurred. int64 create_height = 1; // end_time defines the Unix nest delegation end time. google.protobuf.Timestamp complete_time = 2 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false, (gogoproto.stdtime) = true]; // start_balance defines the starting balance at the start of the redelegation. string initial_balance = 3 [ (cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.Int", (gogoproto.customtype) = "", (gogoproto.nullable) = false ]; // share_dst is the number of destination validation shares created by redelegation. string share_dst = 4 [ (cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.Dec", (gogoproto.customtype) = "", (gogoproto.nullable) = false ];}/ / Redelegation lists the redelegation bindings for the specified // delegate from the specified source validator to the specified target validator message Redelegation { option (gogoproto.equal) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_getters) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; // delegate_address is the bech32 encoded address of the delegate. string delegate_address = 1 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; // validator_src_address is the address of the validator redelegate source operator. string validator_src_address = 2 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; // validator_dst_address is the address of the validator re-delegation operator. string validator_dst_address = 3 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; // records are redelegation records. repeated entries RedelegationEntry = 4 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false]; // redelegate entries }


All queue objects are sorted by timestamp. The time spent in any queue is first rounded to the nearest nanosecond and then sorted. The time format used for sorting is a slight modification of RFC3339Nano and uses a format string"2006-01-02T15:04:05.000000000". Especially this format:

  • the right insets are all zeros
  • remove time zone information (uses UTC)

In all cases, the stored timestamp represents the queue item's maturation time.

#UnbondingDelegation Queue

The revocation queue is maintained to track the progress of delegations being revoked.

  • Unrelated Delegation:0x41 | format(tid) -> []DVPair

Coffee // DVPair is a structure that holds only a delegate-validator pair with no other data. // It is intended to be used as a marshaling pointer. For example, DVPair// can be used to construct a key to get an UnbondingDelegation from state.message DVPair { option (gogoproto.equal) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_getters) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; string delegate_address = 1 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; string validator_address = 2 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"];}

#Redelegation queue

A reinstallation queue is maintained to track the progress of the redistribution.

  • Redelegation Queue:0x42 | format(time) -> []DVVTriplet

Coffee // A DVVTriplet is a structure that only has a triple delegate-validator-validator // with no other data. It is designed to be used as a pointer suitable for walking. For example, DVVTriplet can be used to construct a key to get // Redelegation from state.message DVVTriplet { option (gogoproto.equal) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_getters) = false; option (gogoproto.goproto_stringer) = false; string delegate_address = 1 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; string validator_src_address = 2 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"]; string validator_dst_address = 3 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"];

#Validator queue

A validation queue is maintained to track the progress of validators that are not bound.

  • ValidatorQueueTime:0x43 | format(czas) -> []sdk.ValAddress

The stored object, like any key, is a series of addresses of the validation operators from which the validation object can be accessed. Typically, only one validator entry is expected to be associated with a given timestamp, but it is possible for multiple validators to exist in the queue at the same location.

#Historical information

HistoricalInfo objects are saved and cleared in each block so that the effort continuesNthe latest historical information specified by the release module parameter:Historical records.

Coffee // Historical information includes header and validator information for a given block. // It is stored as part of the staking module's state, which maintains the 'n' most// recent historical information// ('n' is set by the staking module `historical_entries` parameter).message HistoricalInfo { tendermint.types.Header header = 1 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false]; repeated Validator rolled = 2 [(gogoproto.nullable) = false];}

With each BeginBlock, the stake holder will retain the current header and validators that validated the current block inHistorical informationobject. Validators are sorted by their addresses to ensure they are in deterministic order. The oldest historical records will be cleared to ensure that only the number of historical records defined by the parameter exist.


What is the Cosmos SDK? ›

The Cosmos SDK is an open-source framework for building multi-asset public Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchains , like the Cosmos Hub, as well as permissioned Proof-of-Authority (PoA) blockchains. Blockchains built with the Cosmos SDK are generally referred to as application-specific blockchains.

Is Cosmos SDK free? ›

The Cosmos free SDK allows developers to build sovereign blockchain apps without ongoing costs.

How do I get started with Cosmos SDK? ›

Check it out →
  1. Write your custom blockchain. Compose your blockchain application with a mix of prebuilt modules and your own custom modules.
  2. Launch your brand-new blockchain. Test your MVP with users, collect & iterate on feedback, and then launch your public mainnet.
  3. Connect to other Cosmos blockchains.

Who is Jae Kwon? ›

Jae Kwon is a blockchain software architect and co-founder of Tendermint, and the president of the Interchain Foundation.

What is SDK in blockchain? ›

SDKs are integrated bundles of software tools that help programmers develop blockchain solutions. They are great for speeding up blockchain development. Many SDKs include one or more crypto APIs. Examples of well-known blockchain SDKs include Cosmos SDK, Samsung Blockchain SDK, and Tatum JavaScript Blockchain SDK.

Is Cosmos SDK an EVM? ›

Evmos (EVMOS) is a scalable application-agnostic blockchain network which uses the Cosmos SDK framework to implement the Ethereum virtual machine (EVM), achieving full compatibility with Ethereum. Within the Cosmos ecosystem, Evmos is the first EVM-compatible chain.

What SDK means? ›

SDK is the acronym for “Software Development Kit”. The SDK brings together a group of tools that enable the programming of mobile applications. This set of tools can be divided into 3 categories: SDKs for programming or operating system environments (iOS, Android, etc.)

What is Cosmos used for? ›

Cosmos enables blockchains to transfer value with each other through IBC and Peg-Zones, while letting them retain their sovereignty. Cosmos allows blockchain applications to scale to millions of users through horizontal and vertical scalability solutions.

What language does Cosmos use? ›

While C# is the primary language used by developers (both on the backend and by end users of Cosmos), many CLI languages can be used, provided they compile to pure CIL without the use of Platform Invocation Services (P/Invokes). Cosmos is mainly intended for use with . NET.

How does Cosmos make money? ›

Transaction fees collected on the Cosmos Hub are distributed to staked ATOM holders. The total supply of ATOM is inflated to reward stakers. ATOM holders that do not stake do not receive rewards, meaning their ATOM get diluted over time. The yearly inflation rate of ATOM is available on most explorers.

Who built Cosmos SDK? ›

Cosmos SDK (Software Development Kit)

After developing and testing Tendermint, Jae and Ethan built the Cosmos SDK — a software development kit for developers to quickly and simply build blockchains using the Tendermint consensus algorithm and pairing it with a sybil resistance mechanism using Proof-of-Stake.

What is built on Cosmos? ›

Cosmos views itself as the third evolution in blockchain technology (following Bitcoin and Ethereum). It allows developers to build blockchains designed for specific use cases, known as application-specific blockchains, which can be interconnected to pass data between each other.

Who owns Cosmos crypto? ›

Cosmos Network is a blockchain network architecture operated by the Interchain Foundation. Established in 2016, the company is headquartered in Zug, Switzerland, and was founded by Ethan Buchman and Jae Kwon. Cosmos consists of different independent blockchains referred to as zones.

Who is the CEO of Cosmos Crypto? ›

Jae Kwon is the Founder and CEO of Tendermint, co-creator of Cosmos.

Who is the CEO of Cosmos Network? ›

Cosmos Network's CEO and Founder is Jae Kwon.

Why do we need SDK? ›

An SDK is used to create applications for a specific platform or programming language. An SDK typically includes an API, but it also includes other resources like documentation, sample code, and development tools.

What is an example of a SDK? ›

Some examples of software development kits are the Java development kit (JDK), the Windows 7 SDK, the MacOs X SDK, and the iPhone SDK. As a specific example, the Kubernetes operator SDK can help you develop your own Kubernetes operator.

What is an SDK good for? ›

A software development kit (SDK) is a set of software tools and programs provided by hardware and software vendors that developers can use to build applications for specific platforms. SDKs help developers easily integrate their apps with a vendor's services.

Is Cardano an EVM? ›

Thus, says the developer, Cardano will immediately become one of the largest EVM networks in terms of user base size. In addition, Milkomeda will soon launch staking rewards for all EVM users, including smart contract developers.

Does Cardano have an EVM? ›

The proof of concept EVM sidechain is an open-source Cardano sidechain protocol providing a client written in Scala. The EVM sidechain is a child sidechain, meaning that its starting, or genesis block, is seeded from the main chain and the child blockchain depends on the main chain.

Is Polkadot a layer 1? ›

Polkadot parachains are independent layer-1 blockchains that run in parallel to each other connected to the Relay Chain. Each parachain can have its own design, token economy, functionality and governance.

Is SDK an API? ›

An API is a set of libraries that make up the core language that you can work with out of the box, whereas an SDK is a development kit that facilitates usages of an API. Conceptually both are a way for your program to interface with and control the resources provided by another piece of software.

What are the types of SDK? ›

Here are some common types of SDKs:
  • Open-source SDK. Developers can view, modify and distribute open source SDKs. ...
  • Hardware SDK. ...
  • Mobile SDK. ...
  • Proprietary SDK. ...
  • Obtain the SDK. ...
  • Use the APIs. ...
  • Customise your product.
Nov 28, 2022

What are SDK components? ›

SDK tools is a package of many essential tools which are required for development of any android application. SDK tools consist of several different components such as Android SDK Build Tools,NDK,Android SDK Command Line Tools, CMake and other. When any new update is released by google for the updates of these tools.

Is Cosmos a blockchain? ›

About - Cosmos Network. The Cosmos Network is a decentralized network of independent, scalable, and interoperable blockchains, creating the foundation for a new token economy.

Is Cosmos layer 1 or 2? ›

Cosmos is the first layer 0 Blockchain that enables interoperability between different systems.

What blockchains use Cosmos? ›

The Cosmos SDK has also been used to construct a number of key blockchain and cryptocurrency projects, such as Binance DEX, Kava, Terra and IRISNet.

What type of database is Cosmos? ›

Cosmos Database (DB) is a globally distributed, low latency, multi-model database for managing data at large scales. It is a cloud-based NoSQL database offered as a PaaS (Platform as a Service) from Microsoft Azure. It is a highly available, high throughput, reliable database and is often called a serverless database.

Does Solana use Cosmos? ›

Solana-Cosmos Interoperability

The new SVM rollup will further allow Solana smart contracts to be deployed within Cosmos without hindrance, setting the stage for Solana apps to interact directly with IBC.

Is Cosmos like Ethereum? ›

While Ethereum (ETH) is a more established platform with a larger market share, Cosmos (ATOM) offers a more flexible and scalable architecture that is well-suited for enterprise blockchain solutions and cross-chain interoperability.

Why is Cosmos dropping? ›

The Cosmos (ATOM) price failed to sustain its breakout, signaling that lower prices could follow soon. ATOM is the native token of the Cosmos ecosystem, which aims to function as an internet of blockchains.

Can Cosmos reach $1,000? ›

ATOM's all-time high market capitalization was hit in January of 2022 at $10.6 billion. At $1,000 per ATOM, the Cosmos market cap would be 27x larger than its current all-time high. In order to reach $1,000, the ATOM price would need to increase 94.3x from its current level of $10.6. In theory, Cosmos can reach $1000.

What blockchain is ATOM on? ›

The Cosmos Hub, a proof-of-stake blockchain, is powered by its native ATOM cryptocurrency. Users seeking to stay connected on the current development status of Cosmos can follow its roadmap through the website.

Is Cosmos a DeFi? ›

DeFi is the movement that leverages decentralized networks to transform old financial products into trustless and transparent protocols that run without intermediaries. We have 195 DeFi projects listed and 2 of them built on Cosmos.

How many users does Cosmos have? ›

The total number of accounts on Cosmos Hub has increased from 125k at the start of 2021 to 1.2mn in July 2022. These numbers could increase significantly once the ATOM token value accrual increases after the launch of inter-chain security.

How many developers are working on Cosmos? ›

Cosmos was the next ecosystem in terms of active developers, with just under 1,800, while Polygon had around 1,100. There were just 920 total active developers for the Bitcoin network by the end of 2022.

How many dapps are built on Cosmos? ›

List of 43 Cosmos Dapps and Tools (2023) - Alchemy. Tools include reporting, alerts, analytics, and application monitoring. Monitor transactions with request explorer, request sandbox, mempool visualizer.

What is the price of Cosmos? ›

The live price of Cosmos is $ 10.86 per (ATOM / USD) today with a current market cap of $ 3.11B USD. 24-hour trading volume is $ 71.49M USD. ATOM to USD price is updated in real-time. Cosmos is +2.3% in the last 24 hours.

Does Cosmos have a limited supply? ›

Atom's standard is ERC-20, BEP-20 and Cosmos. Atom's maximum supply is unlimited to help with the networks' reward structure.

Who are competitors to Cosmos Crypto? ›

Cosmos Network's competitors and similar companies include Coinbase, Blockchain, Polkadot Network and ICON Foundation.

What will Cosmos be worth in 2025? ›

Cosmos (ATOM) Price Predictions 2023 - 2031
YearMinimum PriceAverage Price
5 more rows

What coins are under Cosmos? ›

Cosmos Market Capitalization
  • BNB Chain. BNB. — — — Price. — Symbol. BNB. ...
  • Thorchain. RUNE. — — — Price. — Symbol. ...
  • Agoric. BLD. — — Price. — Symbol. BLD. ...
  • AIOZ. AIOZ. — — Price. — Symbol. AIOZ. ...
  • Akash Network. AKT. — — Price. — Symbol. AKT. ...
  • Arkh. ARKH. — — Price. — Symbol. ARKH. ...
  • AssetMantle. MNTL. — — Price. — Symbol. MNTL. ...
  • Axelar. AXL. — — Price. — Symbol. AXL.

Is Cosmos a Chinese company? ›

Cosmo is founded in Hong Kong as a design-to-manufacturing trading company. Our strategy evolves from a trading-model to fully-owned manufacturing operations, to provide our customers the highest quality solutions. We establish two fully-owned manufacturing complexes in Dongguan, China, with advanced development labs.

How long has Cosmos crypto been around? ›

Cosmos was co-founded by Jae Kwon and Ethan Buchman in 2014, with the support of the Interchain Foundation (ICF), a Swiss company that supports R&D for secure, scalable, open, and decentralized networks.

Is Cosmos a safe investment? ›

Is Cosmos (ATOM) A Good Investment? Cosmos is a fantastic investment because, according to the most credible price analysts, its value will continue to rise for the foreseeable future. Since its 2019 market debut, shares of Cosmos have returned an impressive 84%. You can make money by betting on Cosmos's ascent.

Where is Cosmos based? ›

Cosmos Network is located in Zug, Zug, Switzerland . Who invested in Cosmos Network ?

Is Cosmos public or private? ›

Amongst all the hype in the cryptocurrency space, a handful of permissionless initiatives stand out such as Polkadot and DFINITY. Cosmos is one of them, and the network officially went live late last night.

Where is Cosmos Corporation headquartered? ›

Cosmos Corporation is a recognized leader in natural health, wellness, and care products. From our beginning in 1980, we've been family-owned and operated in the Midwest, with our headquarters today in Saint Peters, Missouri.

What is Cosmos SDK and Tendermint? ›

Tendermint is the most (and only) mature BFT consensus engine in existence. It is widely used across the industry and is considered the gold standard consensus engine for building Proof-of-Stake systems. The Cosmos SDK is open-source and designed to make it easy to build blockchains out of composable modules.

What exactly is Cosmos? ›

The cosmos (/ˈkɒzmɒs/, US also /-moʊs, -məs/) is another name for the universe. Using the word cosmos implies viewing the universe as a complex and orderly system or entity.

Does BNB use Cosmos SDK? ›

In a somewhat novel architecture, BNB Chain is composed of two blockchains: The EVM compatible Smart Chain (BSC), which is based on a fork of go-ethereum and the Beacon Chain (BC), built on top of Tendermint and Cosmos SDK.

What is ATOM Cosmos used for? ›

ATOM have three use cases: as a spam-prevention mechanism, as staking tokens, and as a voting mechanism in governance. As a spam prevention mechanism, ATOM are used to pay fees. The fee may be proportional to the amount of computation required by the transaction, similar to Ethereum's concept of “gas”.

What is Tendermint SDK? ›

The Cosmos SDK is a framework that facilitates the development of secure state-machines on top of Tendermint. At its core, the SDK is a boilerplate implementation of the ABCI in Golang. It comes with a multistore to persist data and a router to handle transactions.

How many dapps are there in Cosmos? ›

List of 45 Cosmos Dapps and Tools (2023) - Alchemy. Tools include reporting, alerts, analytics, and application monitoring.

What language does cosmos use? ›

While C# is the primary language used by developers (both on the backend and by end users of Cosmos), many CLI languages can be used, provided they compile to pure CIL without the use of Platform Invocation Services (P/Invokes). Cosmos is mainly intended for use with . NET.

Who runs cosmos? ›

Established in 2016, the company is headquartered in Zug, Switzerland, and was founded by Ethan Buchman and Jae Kwon. Cosmos consists of different independent blockchains referred to as zones. Zones are linked to each other by Cosmos Network Hubs, and the digital ledgers enable token swapping between zones.

Why is it called cosmos? ›

Cosmos is originally a Greek word, meaning both "order" and "world," because the ancient Greeks thought that the world was perfectly harmonious and impeccably put in order. We now use cosmos without the idea of perfect order.

What blockchain is Cosmos built on? ›

The Cosmos Hub, a proof-of-stake blockchain, is powered by its native ATOM cryptocurrency. Users seeking to stay connected on the current development status of Cosmos can follow its roadmap through the website.

What blockchain does Cosmos run on? ›

Cosmos developed an Inter-Blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC) that helps disparate blockchains communicate. The Cosmos team is also working on blockchains known as “peg-zones” that can link with projects outside the Cosmos ecosystem. For example, Cosmos can deploy a peg-zone between Bitcoin and Ethereum.

What blockchains use Cosmos SDK? ›

Furthermore, the Cosmos SDK allows users to connect their own blockchain to the Cosmos Network via IBC, increasing liquidity and user adoption. The Cosmos SDK has also been used to construct a number of key blockchain and cryptocurrency projects, such as Binance DEX, Kava, Terra and IRISNet.

Is Binance built on Cosmos? ›

Binance, the world's largest cryptocurrency exchange, announces Binance Chain, which is built on Tendermint BFT and Cosmos SDK.

What is better Polkadot or Cosmos? ›

Polkadot provides an ahead-of-time Wasm compiler as well as an interpreter (Wasmi) for execution, while Cosmos only executes smart contracts in an interpreter. Cosmos chains can be developed using the Cosmos SDK, written in Go. The Cosmos SDK contains about 10 modules (e.g. staking, governance, etc.)

Why Cosmos is better than Ethereum? ›

While Ethereum (ETH) is more established and widely used for smart contract development, Cosmos (ATOM) has a more flexible and scalable architecture that allows for easy interoperability with other blockchain platforms.


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